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Tenth graders at MC2 STEM High School fit together their capstone project, which combines art and engineering.
Photo by EDUimages (CC BY-NC 4.0)


The publications and presentations below include a selection of research on science performance assessment and performance-based learning that can be used to understand the research base that underpins our work and the research that we are doing on our curricula and assessments.

Selected SCALE Publications and Presentations

  1. Wertheim, J. A. (2021). Criteria for the design of engaging, educative, and equitable science performance assessments: Design Criteria for the Stanford NGSS Assessment Project (SNAP). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity.
  2. Deutscher, Rebecca R., Holthuis, Nicole C., Maldonado, Saúl I., Pecheone, Raymond L., Schultz, Susan E. & Wei, Ruth C. (2021). Learning Through Performance Project-Based Learning as a Lever for Engaging the Next-Generation Science Standards.
  3. Lucas Educational Research. (2021). Research Brief: Project-Based Learning Leads to Gains in Science and Other Subjects in Middle School and Benefits All Learners.
  4. Stoll, L., & Schultz, S. E. (2019). How to design a performance task. Science Scope, 42(7), 40-45.
  5. Holthuis, N., Deutscher, R., Schultz, S. E., & Jamshidi, A. (2018). The New NGSS Classroom: A Curriculum Framework for Project-Based Science Learning. American Educator, 42(2), 23-27.
  6. Wertheim, J. A., Holthuis, N.H., Schultz, S.E. (2016). Evaluating Item Quality in Large-Scale Assessments: Phase I Report of the Study of State Assessment Systems. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity.
  7. Wertheim, J., Osborne, J., Quinn, H., Pecheone, R., Schultz, S., Holthuis, N., & Martin, P. (2016). An analysis of existing science assessments and the implications for developing assessment tasks for the NGSS. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford NGSS Assessment Project Team (SNAP).
  8. Osborne, J., Pecheone, R., Quinn, H., Holthuis, N., Schultz, S., Wertheim, J., & Martin, P. (2015). A system of assessment for the Next Generation Science Standards in California: A discussion document. Palo Alto: Stanford University.
  9. Wertheim, J. & Osborne, J. (2019). Supporting Coherence Across a System of Assessment for NGSS. In American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual International Conference.
  10. Badrinarayan, A. & Wertheim, J. (2019). Reconceptualizing Alignment for NGSS Assessments. In National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual International Conference.

Some publications that inform our work

  1. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  2. Schweingruber, H., Beatty, A., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Seeing students learn science: Integrating assessment and instruction in the classroom. National Academies Press.
  3. Darling-Hammond, L., & Adamson, F. (2010). Beyond basic skills: The role of performance assessment in achieving 21st century standards of learning. Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.


You can find more publications and presentations by the Stanford NGSS Assessment Project here.